Lesley Hazleton: The doubt essential to faith

Translator: Joseph Geni
Reviewer: Morton Bast Writing biography is a strange thing to do. It’s a journey into the foreign territory of somebody else’s life, a journey, an exploration that can take you places you never dreamed of going and still can’t quite believe you’ve been, especially if, like me, you’re an agnostic Jew and the life you’ve been exploring is that of Muhammad. Five years ago, for instance, I found myself waking each morning in misty Seattle to what I knew was an impossible question: What actually happened one desert night, half the world and almost half of history away? What happened, that is, on the night in the year 610 when Muhammad received the first revelation of the Koran on a mountain just outside Mecca? This is the core mystical moment of Islam, and as such, of course, it defies empirical analysis. Yet the question wouldn’t let go of me. I was fully aware that for someone as secular as I am, just asking it could be seen as pure chutzpah. (Laughter) And I plead guilty as charged, because all exploration, physical or intellectual, is inevitably in some sense an act of transgression, of crossing boundaries. Still, some boundaries are larger than others. So a human encountering the divine, as Muslims believe Muhammad did, to the rationalist, this is a matter not of fact but of wishful fiction, and like all of us, I like to think of myself as rational. Which might be why when I looked at the earliest accounts we have of that night, what struck me even more than what happened was what did not happen. Muhammad did not come floating off the mountain as though walking on air. He did not run down shouting, “Hallelujah!” and “Bless the Lord!” He did not radiate light and joy. There were no choirs of angels, no music of the spheres, no elation, no ecstasy, no golden aura surrounding him, no sense of an absolute, fore-ordained role as the messenger of God. That is, he did none of the things that might make it easy to cry foul, to put down the whole story as a pious fable. Quite the contrary. In his own reported words, he was convinced at first that what had happened couldn’t have been real. At best, he thought, it had to have been a hallucination — a trick of the eye or the ear, perhaps, or his own mind working against him. At worst, possession — that he’d been seized by an evil jinn, a spirit out to deceive him, even to crush the life out of him. In fact, he was so sure that he could only be majnun, possessed by a jinn, that when he found himself still alive, his first impulse was to finish the job himself, to leap off the highest cliff and escape the terror of what he’d experienced by putting an end to all experience. So the man who fled down the mountain that night trembled not with joy but with a stark, primordial fear. He was overwhelmed not with conviction, but by doubt. And that panicked disorientation, that sundering of everything familiar, that daunting awareness of something beyond human comprehension, can only be called a terrible awe. This might be somewhat difficult to grasp now that we use the word “awesome” to describe a new app or a viral video. With the exception perhaps of a massive earthquake, we’re protected from real awe. We close the doors and hunker down, convinced that we’re in control, or, at least, hoping for control. We do our best to ignore the fact that we don’t always have it, and that not everything can be explained. Yet whether you’re a rationalist or a mystic, whether you think the words Muhammad heard that night came from inside himself or from outside, what’s clear is that he did experience them, and that he did so with a force that would shatter his sense of himself and his world and transform this otherwise modest man into a radical advocate for social and economic justice. Fear was the only sane response, the only human response. Too human for some, like conservative Muslim theologians who maintain that the account of his wanting to kill himself shouldn’t even be mentioned, despite the fact that it’s in the earliest Islamic biographies. They insist that he never doubted for even a single moment, let alone despaired. Demanding perfection, they refuse to tolerate human imperfection. Yet what, exactly, is imperfect about doubt? As I read those early accounts, I realized it was precisely Muhammad’s doubt that brought him alive for me, that allowed me to begin to see him in full, to accord him the integrity of reality. And the more I thought about it, the more it made sense that he doubted, because doubt is essential to faith. If this seems a startling idea at first, consider that doubt, as Graham Greene once put it, is the heart of the matter. Abolish all doubt, and what’s left is not faith, but absolute, heartless conviction. You’re certain that you possess the Truth — inevitably offered with an implied uppercase T — and this certainty quickly devolves into dogmatism and righteousness, by which I mean a demonstrative, overweening pride in being so very right, in short, the arrogance of fundamentalism. It has to be one of the multiple ironies of history that a favorite expletive of Muslim fundamentalists is the same one once used by the Christian fundamentalists known as Crusaders: “infidel,” from the Latin for “faithless.” Doubly ironic, in this case, because their absolutism is in fact the opposite of faith. In effect, they are the infidels. Like fundamentalists of all religious stripes, they have no questions, only answers. They found the perfect antidote to thought and the ideal refuge of the hard demands of real faith. They don’t have to struggle for it like Jacob wrestling through the night with the angel, or like Jesus in his 40 days and nights in the wilderness, or like Muhammad, not only that night on the mountain, but throughout his years as a prophet, with the Koran constantly urging him not to despair, and condemning those who most loudly proclaim that they know everything there is to know and that they and they alone are right. And yet we, the vast and still far too silent majority, have ceded the public arena to this extremist minority. We’ve allowed Judaism to be claimed by violently messianic West Bank settlers, Christianity by homophobic hypocrites and misogynistic bigots, Islam by suicide bombers. And we’ve allowed ourselves to be blinded to the fact that no matter whether they claim to be Christians, Jews or Muslims, militant extremists are none of the above. They’re a cult all their own, blood brothers steeped in other people’s blood. This isn’t faith. It’s fanaticism, and we have to stop confusing the two. We have to recognize that real faith has no easy answers. It’s difficult and stubborn. It involves an ongoing struggle, a continual questioning of what we think we know, a wrestling with issues and ideas. It goes hand in hand with doubt, in a never-ending conversation with it, and sometimes in conscious defiance of it. And this conscious defiance is why I, as an agnostic, can still have faith. I have faith, for instance, that peace in the Middle East is possible despite the ever-accumulating mass of evidence to the contrary. I’m not convinced of this. I can hardly say I believe it. I can only have faith in it, commit myself, that is, to the idea of it, and I do this precisely because of the temptation to throw up my hands in resignation and retreat into silence. Because despair is self-fulfilling. If we call something impossible, we act in such a way that we make it so. And I, for one, refuse to live that way. In fact, most of us do, whether we’re atheist or theist or anywhere in between or beyond, for that matter, what drives us is that, despite our doubts and even because of our doubts, we reject the nihilism of despair. We insist on faith in the future and in each other. Call this naive if you like. Call it impossibly idealistic if you must. But one thing is sure: Call it human. Could Muhammad have so radically changed his world without such faith, without the refusal to cede to the arrogance of closed-minded certainty? I think not. After keeping company with him as a writer for the past five years, I can’t see that he’d be anything but utterly outraged at the militant fundamentalists who claim to speak and act in his name in the Middle East and elsewhere today. He’d be appalled at the repression of half the population because of their gender. He’d be torn apart by the bitter divisiveness of sectarianism. He’d call out terrorism for what it is, not only criminal but an obscene travesty of everything he believed in and struggled for. He’d say what the Koran says: Anyone who takes a life takes the life of all humanity. Anyone who saves a life, saves the life of all humanity. And he’d commit himself fully to the hard and thorny process of making peace. Thank you. (Applause) Thank you. (Applause)


  1. The Qur'an insults and betrays the divine nature, making God, under the name of Allah, a creature of hatred and passion, an enemy and an assassin (s2v98, s4v14, s8v17, s33v61, s33v62, s33v64, s60v1, s60v13 ).

    S2v98: "Whoever is an enemy of Allah, His angels, His messengers, Gabriel, and Michael … Allah is his enemy, for Allah is the enemy of the unbelievers."

    S4v14: And whosoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger, and transgresseth His commandments, He shall cause him to enter the Fire, to abide therein for ever. And this one will have a degrading punishment.

    S8v17: You did not kill them, but Allah killed them. And when you threw (a handful of earth), it was not you who launched: but it was Allah who was throwing, to test the believers of a beautiful trial of His share! Allah is Hearing and Omniscient.

    S33v61: They are cursed. Wherever they are found, they will be taken and killed mercilessly:

    S33v62: This was the law established by Allah to those who lived before and you will find no change in the law of Allah.

    S33v64: Allah cursed the infidels and prepared them a furnace,

    S60v1: O you who believe! Do not take my enemy and yours as my allies, offering them friendship, whereas they have denied what has come to you from the truth. They expel the Messenger and yourselves because you believe in Allah, your Lord. If you have gone out to fight in My path and seek My pleasure, will you secretly witness to friendship, when I know perfectly what you hide and what you disclose? And whosoever of you doeth, he shall be astray from the righteousness of the path.

    S60v13: O you who believe! Do not take for allies people against whom Allah is angry and despairing of the afterlife, just as the unbelievers despair of the people of the tombs.

    The question, then, is whether a perfect and all-powerful God, loving and absolute, can have enemies, and above all can be an enemy: the answer is obviously not. To be an enemy is to experience aversion, anger and frustration in the face of what resists our will and our power, hatred. To experience hatred is to suffer. To suffer is to be imperfect. But God by definition is perfect. Which means that Allah is not God and that the Qur'an is a trick.

    In no case can violence or murder be advocated in the name of God or the absolute, all the more so if this absolute place the essential in the hereafter. The early Christians for centuries were persecuted by the Roman Empire without ever resorting to violence, it was not until much later that the Church finally took power and betrayed the spirit of the Gospels by taking Questionable and reprehensible political decisions. Whilst Muslims have been constantly spreading their weapons through rapine and booty from the beginning of Islam and according to the content of the Qur'an, They colonized Egypt and the Maghreb by violence and coercion. They charged a discriminatory tax to all non-Muslims, used Christian civil servants who knew the functioning of the administrative machinery of the colonized regions to the west, colonized Persia and waged war against the Indian kingdoms During 10 centuries in order to appropriate their wealth.

    Especially since the Qur'an clearly advocates the inferiority of women in rights, discrimination of non-Muslims, violence, hatred, war, slavery, polygamy, lie, concealment, submission and prohibition of critical thinking .

    With such a conception of God, it is not surprising that Muslims are also underdeveloped and incapable of organizing themselves into a stable, beautiful and fulfilled society.

    Islam, moreover, does not respect any other divinity than Allah the devil, and no other spirituality opposed to the horrors of the Qur'an: s3v28, s4v14, s4v56, s5v51, s8v55, s8v57, s9v29, s33v61, s33v62, s47v4, s47v35, s48v23. Lying may be a Muslim value but it is useless for those who know the text (s3v28, s16v106).

    Besides, it is indeed Allah who misleads in the Quran (s4v88, s4v143, s6v39, s14v4, s30v29). How could an absolute and omnipotent God, perfected by definition, mislead the elements of his own creation, made Him free by love, and then condemn them for the misguidance He Himself would have provoked? Verily I say to you very logically, and certainly, there is only the "demon" that misguides, and Allah is not God. Besides, Allah has no love to give, but only threats. Freedom of conscience being sufficient to test the value of an individual, the wandering of Allah the devil is only a pretext for inciting Muslims to accept the idea that some and some do not want to submit to this Odious religion for precise and sensible reasons. But this is a bad excuse because the Qur'an insults the divine nature. Indeed, God can not mislead His creation. Especially as this would contradict any free will, implied by the love of God through the gift of freedom.

    Allah is a devil who has blown in the ear of Mohammed the fool by pretending to be Gabriel. However it is clear that the content of the Quran, Allah can not be God.

    It is not possible to justify violence and murder in the name of God, and even less under the authority of God Himself. The Divinity, whose ultimate realm is the hereafter, can not in any case encourage such acts. Indeed one can not determine the intention of the one who opposes, to eliminate us, which means that when one kills to defend oneself, our initiative rests on fear, on a bet and can make us 'a murderer. Especially since from that point on we would also be allowed to prejudge certain intentions in time and thus to kill before the other has actually threatened us. Defense through murder therefore implies, through fear, the murderous initiative of the very man who claims to defend himself thus. But God, which nothing better can be conceived, can not in any way nourish fear and incite to this violence since all those who would be killed after leading a just life would be beatified while those who would have intentionally killed Would be cursed.

    It is not about absolutism but about logic. Logic being the most beautiful divine spark of our mind. Also to meet God through science, we must follow this logic, as did the Christians (scholastic of the Middle Ages). God is that of which nothing better can be conceived.

    Finally, there is no possible love for Allah since it imposes submission (s4v14, s4v56, s49v14 and 15 for example), by threat and fear. There can be no love in fear.

  2. It is sweet, Lesley, to watch your goodness, your love for humanity transpire through your words and tone. May God grant you a good share in heaven. You are a better preacher of peace and empathy than most preachers.

  3. Once Muhammad ordered his followers to "kill any Jew that falls into your power", and when one of his followers, Muhayissa, heard this, he went out and murdered Ibn Sunayna (a Jew). Muhammad also said "The end of the world won't come until a Muslim sees a rock and tree and the rock and the tree speak to him and say, ' there is a Jew hiding behind me, slay him!' " Muhammad incited hate against Jews, he ethnically cleansed Arabia of Jews, and he had over 800 beheaded in one gruesome incident. On his deathbed he placed a curse on Jews and Christians.

  4. An non muslim interested in islam. Don't speak arabic and writing a book about islamic history. She is just mike every jew, saw the truth but is so arrogant about it. I didn't understand her point she keeps turning around and around her idea without saying it.

  5. As a Muslim, I wish I can hold her words and give them to every human beings I know, this lady deserve respect from the heart.

  6. I would like to replace the word 'doubt' with curiosity. Only when u are curious to know who Created you, who is sustaining the whole universe and look for answers, that is when you do the research and don't give up until you get to the stage where you are able to distinguish right from wrong just like Prophet Ibrahim.

  7. I am a Christian and I was looking for proof and evidence that Mohammed really came and walked on the earth and there is none none at all there is so much evidence that Jesus walked on the earth hard concrete proof

  8. If you like prophet Mohammed as that much .. and Iam sure you loved him .. because anyone know about him will definitely love him … iam sure you trust him .. then you should follow him … save yourself before traveling to the next life .. and if you want to see him .. join islam and pray for him .. all Muslim are prophet Mohammed lover .. we missed him .. we always crying because we love and miss him

  9. Disagree with the speaker's conclusion that doubt is essential to moderate undoubting/absolute faith in order to mitigate falling into conceited "fundamentalism". Faith must be based on fundamentals, unfortunately it is the corrupted/misinformed fundamentals that are being adopted and this precedes "fundamentalism" (the wrong kind). Corrupt fundamentals (i. e. ignorance of the True fundamentals (by Believers, Agnostics and Non-believers) ) is a ready arsenal for evil/mischievous as well as misguided agendas the world over. ALLAH is not a jealous God. ALLAH is free from human qualities and absolutely independent (in need of nothing and no one).

  10. Ms Hazleton appears too fawning of Mohammad and Islam. I find her book "After the Prophet" interesting yet an apparent adjuration of Mohammad and Aisha is misplaced. The Quran is filled with militant language that dictates the subjugation of all non-Muslims and does not allow a Muslim to question these statements for fear of being labeled an apostate and subsequently killed. In reading the Quran and Hadiths, it is apparent to me that Mohammad would side with the Islamist vice rail against them.

  11. Philip Schaff, Swiss born Christian author….

    Wrote of Jesus:- Jesus of Nazareth without money or weapons conquered more peoples than
    Alexander the Great, the Cesar's of Rome, Muhammad of Islam and Napoleon together. Without Science and learning he shed more light on things human and divine than all philosophers and scholars combined. Without the eloquence of schools he spoke with such words of life as were not spoken by any before or since and produced effects which lie beyond the reach of orator and poet. Without writing a single line he set more pens in motion and furnished more themes for sermons, orations, discussions, learned volumes, works of art and songs of praise than the army of great men of ancient and modern times. Jesus of Nazareth in his lifetime never travelled no more than 200 miles, there has never or will ever be another like him, he is God alone.

  12. All people believe in Islam because its the last and the right religion in the all world. Say أشهد الااله الا الله وأن محمد رسول الله.
    Thanks allah for making me Muslim

  13. For years I've been seeking answer to the violence and intolerance of religious people from all creed, I even thought that the Buddhist are exception, but after what happened in Myanmar they aren't the exception, I taught that the Atheist are exception but after what happened in China, where Believers are put in Camps, they aren't the exception ….You lady (Lasley Hazeleton) did answer my question, " Doubt is the Heart of matter, Abolish all doubt and what's left is not Faith, but absolute Hearth less Conviction"
    You are Absolutely correct, even God / Allah ask us to believe not to prove his existence…Believe is knowing plus doubt, if you eliminate the doubt you are left Certainty,
    Certainty requires evidence, no one can can proof or disproof the existence of Allah / God…
    If you are left with believe (Knowing+Doubt), you have to practice your believe on yourself only and not get anyone else involved with you.
    God / Allah was clear that the judgement will on the individual level. not by groups.
    So thank you Lovely lady, you have been an enlightenment to us.

  14. silly cow.. she's no intellectual.. people will only take you seriously if you stop calling any body who has an opposite view that you have on that bronze age Bedouin cult as islamophobe.. which happens to be her favourite word.. you can't prove any of that bullshit actually happens.. its all written by those medieval misogynist desert Arab with low level integrity..

  15. I was just questioning my faith before watching this talk. As a Muslim, I refrained myself mostly from questioning if I had doubts thinking that I'd be labeled as disbeliever. Muslims are supposed to not question anything, just blindly belief lest you'd be called non-believer.
    I believe but there are many things that are vague to me and I seek the Truth. Being unsure and having doubts and questions make me a human.

  16. As if the world needed another biology of muhammad & especially from a alcoholic sounding woman and her raspy voice. She is of her father the Devil , that is clear and is jumping on a bandwagon to hustle money and book companies don't back books that doesn't have a market.

  17. I think a lot. Been through a lot. No where near as others have been. Im a Muslim. There was point where I near abandoned my faith. But I couldnt. No matter how much pain and depression I was in. Later I became more concrete in my faith. That thinking sometimes led me to believe I figured everything out. Like everything…reason, origin, purpose etc etc. none of which interfered with my faith.
    But then I would have to rein myself back in, and tell to self Who do You Think You Are?
    That doubt is necessary. It helps me realize how little I am and despite how much I know, How Little I truly Know! Self doubt is a necessity for faith. And those who say why doubt yourself, then realize you are talking to Humankind! Forget the other labels. Sometimes humans with their free will and open roaming and other desires, need doubt, to stop selves from drowning in bad and nasty selfish deeds.

  18. Nonsense idiot lady, travel to South Asia and see the impact of nonsense book. And followed by millions and millions of nonsense people. Then you will realise what is that book. Only by ready you cannot see the impact. You need to realise that impact is only distruction and nothing else please don't spread lie if you don't know the truth.

  19. You mean Mohammed who founded a global, imperialist, supremacist, genocidal death cult that was a pedophile, wife stealing, wife beating, torture and lying teaching slave owner who owned two black slaves and taught hatred of Jewish people? That Mohammed? Or are we talking about somebody else?

  20. I'm very open minded! I doubt many things. Hey what about the satanic verses? He was also convinced what happened was god but it was the devil decieving him, he later was punished by The Archangel Gabriel

  21. What a speaker, she should be the spokesperson for humanity….because she understands humanity…..and she's right about prophet Muhammad, he acted like any sane person would act, after seeing something supernatural….and this is what makes him stand out from all the others….because he acted like a human, like us, and not some devine, know it all…that is what makes him. Real and tangible, to other people's lives, because it's relatable…….

  22. She's lost. Muhammad was a liar, madman, gang leader and a false prophet. Christ is Lord and Islam is false. And her quote from the quran about taking a life or saving a life was an order for the Jews supposedly. The Quran is a funny book full of funny stories and anyone in their right mind would see that. May the spirit of God open your eyes to the light, your ears to the truth and your heart to his son The Lord Jesus Christ. Amen

  23. Researching the life of Muhammad with curiosity and good intention to understand is blissing to every human.

  24. Mohammad was at first simply an early form of Catholic having visions of Jesus and Mary, via the angel Gabriel, tied to the Gospel of Jesus. But this sect of early Catholics were of the Arian sect which did not accept Jesus as a divine person of God, but merely mortal and just a messenger carrying water for another. When Mohammad had these usual visions of conversion that are very customary, he sought to rise in politics as a governor and succeeding to become a King in Medina, invented a new evolved religion that was self serving to his Crown. There is nothing unusual about a Divine Right King fashioned after the Holy Roman Empire or an Infallible Pope. But this sect of early Christians , to which Mohammad was influenced found itself outside the bounds of the Nicean Council of Constantine's governance, the dogmas of Arius, and so Mohammad was doomed to invent his own religion as the mainstream Catholic Faith promoted the dogma of the Divinity of the Christ as brought forth of the same substance of God, that is the Father and the Holy Spirit.
    Any Catholic who has been a convert to Christianity from any other religion has as much religious experiences of a similar nature, plenty of visions of angels, an internal accounting of faith that either confirms the convert to hold to the faith for life, or it passes away of erosion . The Catholics have long seen nothing new about Mohammad or Islam, that was not already well understood in the religious traditions of personal experience with a God who presents a way of being a Personal God to the believer. However, Islam evolved so far away from Christianity it became the biggest detractor and enemy of Christendom in the world, and for that reason alone, Atheists of the Communist Ideology have been fascinated by the works of Islam . But for a Traditional Catholic , the Mohammedan Ascendency is explained as "Familiarity Breeds Contempt". It began too close to the Catholic Church to leave any good impression but to say it is heretical . That leaves Catholics quite immune to considering to convert to Islam .

  25. Presentation on the prophet of Islam, Mohammed ben Abdellah is magnificent
    An intelligence to expose the facts

    A delight

    Thank you

    Good day to all the earthlings

  26. islam is an evil totalitarian ideology invented by aggressive militaristic desertclan leader mohammed who composed the koran from shards of jewish and christian texts which he heard on his business travels to Syria, mixed them with his own intolerant fantasies, and dictated them to an aide (because mohammed himself was illiterate)…official punishment for leaving islam is death penalty (ridda)…in most islamic countries jews, christians, and 'non-believers' are persecuted…in 1400 years of its existence followers of mohammed have murdered 270 million people…therefore islam is certainly not a 'religion of peace' but an ideology of fear, death and destruction…how different was Jesus Christ who said to "love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you"….mohammed commanded to "fight your enemies and submit the world to islam"…

  27. That is why it is called a Belief….

    Science is stubborn and knows, or so it states. Science knows until it finds a new thing and says:
    oh dear, i was mistaken.never mind. This is the new true. Stick to it. . So it continues with the kaizen thing….

  28. Lesley Hazelton does faf more justice to the nabi than many muslims. Its a sham the world equates Islam to a muslim. When the world clearly seperates these 2 they will begin to see the clearer picture.

  29. Lesley do not promote a satanic liar Muhammad did not receive any revalation he was murderour thief and child rapist and a cult leader.

  30. Great analysis of Prophet Muhammad Pbuh most muslims treat him like almost perfect but the fact that he was scared and trembling makes him so much more human to me

  31. Her defasında İslam'a camiasına bizim alimlerimiz!!!!den daha fazla şey katıyor. Dinledikçe zevk veriyor.

  32. Nice voice please any one n the dictionary defines her voice. Imagine in a room where her identification is her voice and convey to visitor a heavy vibrating authoritarian loud female voice.

  33. In the name of Allah (God), the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful
    ( 3.99 ) Say, "O People of the Scripture, why do you avert from the way of Allah those who believe, seeking to make it [seem] deviant, while you are witnesses [to the truth]? And Allah is not unaware of what you do."
    The Quran. Chapter 3 Surat Al-Imran (The family of Imran)

  34. Well saying, what she is saying about doubt and fear at beginning is human, finally the rational person will accept the truth then embraces it with conviction after the full image show up

  35. I love her <3!!! but the part where she says the Prophet (Peace and Blessings be Upon Him) tried to end himself is inauthentic. If anyone wants to read as to why it is inauthentic; https://www.call-to-monotheism.com/the_narration_of_the_prophet_s__peace_be_upon_him__contemplation_of_suicide_is_inauthentic_both_in_terms_of_its_citation_and_textual_content.

  36. Just like anciant jews who mixed lies with truth in old testament, she did the same in her book "Muhammad the first muslim" be aware….

  37. Im Christian thanks for your beautiful lecture my beautiful agnostic jew woman….(9/11 was inside job. like boston paris london berlin)

  38. Abdul aziz Ahmad you look like person, who needs help confused, the way you are writing in your comments, you don't know your identity.. May Allah direct you the write path. Ameen. This is what Satan wants confused people.. Make people iman weak.. Weakness is self harm illnesses. May Allah cure you.

  39. One Only Has To Look At The Prophet Muhammad: What Would Muhammad Do?
    Remember, In Islam, the Prophet Muhammad is considered the Perfect Man to be emulated and/or imitated

  40. Sacrificing Our Daughters: On the Psychology of Islamic Rape-Gangs – (David Wood)(Christian apologist)-Explains How Non-Muslims are viewed

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